Note: this module also relies on you having the tools package, the style package, and the audit tool installed.
zip_codestable to import (ArsDigitans know where to find it but unfortunately we can't redistribute it because it's licensed), or delete the little bit of code that uses it.
A financial transaction is inserted whenever a credit card authorization to charge or refund is made. These transactions may or may not be carried through to fulfillment. The specifics:
When an order is placed, an authorization is done for the full
cost of the order, so a row is inserted into
This row has a unique
transaction_id and it is tied to the order
order_id. This isn't captured yet (not until
the items ship).
When a shipment is made, if it's a full shipment of the order, the
financial transaction inserted when the order is first placed
is ready to be captured (
to_be_captured_p becomes 't' and the
system attempts to mark and capture it).
However, if only a partial shipment is made, a new authorization has
to be made (therefore a new row is inserted into
to_be_captured_p is set to 't' and the
system attempts to mark and capture it).
When a refund is made, a row is also inserted into
A refund is only inserted if it is definite that it needs to be captured,
so there is no need to set
Scheduled procs go around and do the follow-through (making sure everything is marked/settled) for every transaction that needs to be captured.
Each customer has a gift certificate balance (it may be $0.00), which you
can determine by calling the PL/SQL function
ec_gift_certificate_balance. Different chunks of a customer's balance may expire at different
times because every gift certificate that is issued has an expiration date.
When the system applies a customer's gift certificate balance to an order, it begins by using the ones that are going to expire the soonest and continues chronologically until either the order is completely paid for or until the customer's gift certificates run out. If only part of a gift certificate is used, the remaining amount can be used later.
If a customer purchases a gift certificate for someone else, the recipient
(who may or may not be a registered user of the site) is emailed a claim
check that they can use to retrieve the gift certificate and have it
placed in their gift certificate balance. Note: "retrieving" a gift
certificate is equivalent to inserting the
user_id of the
ec_gift_certificates. Retrieved gift certificates
always belong to registered users because gift certificates can
only be retrieved during the course of placing an order, at which time
an unregistered user becomes registered.
Site administrators can issue gift certificates to customers at will.
In this case, no claim check is generated. The gift certificate is
automatically assigned to that
Order states are discussed in detail in Operation of the Ecommerce Module. That should be read to understand the concepts of order states and item states and to see the finite state machines involved.
Below is a very boring diagram of what order state the order should be in given the item state of the items in that order. This diagram only covers the order states VOID, PARTIALLY_FULFILLED, FULFILLED, and RETURNED. All other order states are grouped under OTHER. In all other order states, the items are of a uniform item state, so it is either quite obvious what the order state will be or it is completely independent of what the order state will be.
An "X" in a column implies that there is at least one (possibly many) item in that item state.
|Item State||Order State|
Before credit card information is sent out to CyberCash for authorization,
some checking is done by the module to make sure that the credit card
number is well-formed (using the procedure
ec_creditcard_precheck which can be found in /tcl/ecommerce-credit). The procedure checks the length of the credit card number, makes sure
it starts with the right digit for the card type, and does a LUHN-10
check (that's a checksum which can't determine whether the number is a
valid credit card number but which determines whether it's even possible
for it to be a valid credit card number).
This procedure only encompasses the three most common credit card types: MasterCard, Visa, and American Express. It can quite easily be extended to include other credit card types.
When you install the system, there are 7 automatic emails included that
are sent to customers in common situations (e.g., "Thank you for your
order" or "Your order has shipped"). If a site administrator adds a
new email template using the admin pages, you will have to create a
new procedure that does all the variable substitution, the actual
sending out of the email, etc. This should be easy. Just copy any
one of the 7 autoemail procedures in /tcl/ecommerce-email (except
ec_email_gift_certificate_recipient, which is unusual).
Then invoke your new procedure anywhere appropriate (e.g. the email that
says "Thank you for your order" is invoked by calling
ec_email_new_order $order_id after the order has been
Credit card numbers are stored until an order is completely fulfilled. This is done because a new charge might need to be authorized if a partial shipment is made (we are forced to either capture the amount that a charge was authorized for or to capture nothing at all - we can't capture any amount in between; therefore, we are forced to do a new authorization for each amount we are going to charge the user). A new charge also might need to be authorized if a user has asked the site administrator to add an item to their order.
If you've decided not to allow customers to reuse their credit cards,
their credit card data is removed periodically (a few times a day) by
/tcl/ecommerce-scheduled-procs (it removes credit card numbers for
orders that are FULFILLED, RETURNED, VOID, or EXPIRED).
If you've decided to allow customers to reuse their credit cards, their credit card information is stored indefinitely. This is not recommended unless you have top-notch, full-time, security-minded system administrators. The credit card numbers are not encrypted in the database because there isn't much point in doing so; our software would have to decrypt the numbers anyway in order to pass them off to CyberCash, so it would be completely trivial for anyone who breaks into the machine to grep for the little bit of code that decrypts them. The ideal thing would be if CyberCash were willing to develop a system that uses PGP so that we could encrypt credit card numbers immediately, store them, and send them to CyberCash at will. Philip and Alex's Guide to Web Publishing says:
What would plug this last hole is for CyberCash to give us a public key. We'd encrypt the consumer's card number immediately upon receipt and stuff it into our Oracle database. Then if we needed to retry an authorization, we'd simply send CyberCash a message with the encrypted card number. They would decrypt the card number with their private key and process the transaction normally. If a cracker broke into our server, the handful of credit card numbers in our database would be unreadable without Cybercash's private key. The same sort of architecture would let us do reorders or returns six months after an order.Note 1: If you or the company you work for are very powerful or influential, perhaps you can put a little fire under CyberCash's bum to get them to make that change (Levi's couldn't convince CyberCash when we were doing a project for them). It's not like it would be that hard for CyberCash to implement it.
CyberCash has "no plans" to do anything like this.
Note 2: The above discussion does not mean that the credit card numbers go over the network unencrypted. CyberCash's closed-source software on your machine encrypts the numbers immediately before sending them out.
Note 3: If you want to let your customers reuse their old credit cards,
you can reduce some of the risk by manually removing old credit card data
once in a while (at least then there will be fewer numbers in your database for
the crackers to steal). To clear out the unnecessary credit card data, just
run a procedure like
/tcl/ecommerce-scheduled-procs) but get rid of the if statement that
SaveCreditCardDataP is 0 or 1.
The site administrator can give the same product different prices for
different classes of users. They can also put products on sale over
arbitrary periods of time (sale prices may be available to all
customers or only to ones who have the appropriate
in their URL).
ec_lowest_price_and_price_name_for_an_item in /tcl/ecommerce-money-computations determines the lowest price that a given user
is entitled to receive based on what user classes they're in and what
offer_codes they came to product with. Their
offer_codes are stored, along with their
ec_user_session_offer_codes (we decided to store this in
the database instead of in cookies because it was a slightly more efficient
method, although either implementation would have worked). One minor
complication to this is that if a user saves their shopping cart, we want
them to get their special offer price, even though they may be coming
back with a different
user_session_id; therefore, upon retrieving saved
offer_codes are inserted again into
ec_user_session_offer_codes with the user's current
user_session_id (we had to associate
user_session_id as opposed to
because someone with an
offer_code shouldn't be prevented
from seeing the special offer price if they haven't logged in yet).