## Ground Training Lesson 11

### 1.5 Hours Ground

by Philip Greenspun and Kasim Te; revised July 2008

Developed for students at East Coast Aero Club which operated under FAR Part 141 from July 2008 through July 2010.

Site Home : Flying : Helicopter 141 : CFI : One Item

### Objective

The student will assume the instructor's role and present a classroom lecture on basic aerodynamics.

### Elements

#### Basic Aerodynamics -- to be taught by the CFI candidate

• The Four Forces
1. Lift
2. Weight
3. Thrust
4. Drag
• Airfoils
1. Symmetrical vs. unsymmetrical
3. Trailing edge
4. Chord line
5. Relative wind
6. Angle of attack
7. Bernoulli's principle
8. Tip path plane
• Factors Affecting Lift and Drag
1. Surface area
2. Angle of attack
3. Velocity of airflow
4. Air density
• The Three Axes of Movement
1. Longitudinal - Roll
2. Lateral - Pitch
3. Vertical - Yaw
• Torque
1. Newton's third law of motion
2. Tail rotor thrust
3. Controlling torque
• Rotor Systems
1. Fully articulated
2. Semi-rigid
3. Rigid
• Vibrations
1. Sympathetic resonance
2. Ground resonance

### Completion Standards

This lesson will be complete when, by oral examination, the student is able to identify and teach these components of aerodynamic forces and explain how they relate to helicopter flight. The student's performance will be reviewed with reference to the fundamentals of instruction topics of organizing materials and the lecture method.

### Study Assignments

• The student shall prepare a lesson plan, lecture notes, and review questions as necessary to teach this material.
• Aviation Instructor Handbook
• Rotorcraft Flying Handbook -- Chapters 2-3 (as a reference for lessons)

### Ground Training Record, Lesson 11

Any deviations from the completion standards should be noted in the previous section. After completing an item in the Elements section, place a check mark next to that item.

• Student Name:
• Instructor Name/CFI#/expiration:
• Instructor Endorsement:
• Date of Lesson:

Start your helicopter career today by calling 781-274-6322 or emailing philg@mit.edu.

Text and photos (if any) Copyright 2005-8 Philip Greenspun.

philg@mit.edu