Data Modelingpart of SQL for Web Nerds by Philip Greenspun
When data modeling, you are telling the RDBMS the following:
For example, consider a table for recording user-submitted comments to a Web site. The publisher has made the following stipulations:
Implicit in this model is the assumption that
create table user_submitted_comments ( comment_id integer primary key, user_id not null references users, submission_time date default sysdate not null, ip_address varchar(50) not null, content clob, approved_p char(1) check(approved_p in ('t','f')) );
approved_pcan be NULL and that, if not explicitly set during the INSERT, that is what it will default to. What about the check constraint? It would seem to restrict
approved_pto values of "t" or "f". NULL, however, is a special value and if we wanted to prevent
approved_pfrom taking on NULL we'd have to add an explicit
How do NULLs work with queries? Let's fill
user_submitted_comments with some sample data and see:
We've successfully JOINed the
insert into user_submitted_comments (comment_id, user_id, ip_address, content) values (1, 23069, '22.214.171.124', 'This article reminds me of Hemingway'); Table created. SQL> select first_names, last_name, content, user_submitted_comments.approved_p from user_submitted_comments, users where user_submitted_comments.user_id = users.user_id; FIRST_NAMES LAST_NAME CONTENT APPROVED_P ------------ --------------- ------------------------------------ ------------ Philip Greenspun This article reminds me of Hemingway
userstable to get both the comment content and the name of the user who submitted it. Notice that in the select list we had to explicitly request
user_submitted_comments.approved_p. This is because the
userstable also has an
When we inserted the comment row we did not specify a value for the
approved_p column. Thus we expect that the value would be
NULL and in fact that's what it seems to be. Oracle's SQL*Plus
application indicates a NULL value with white space.
For the administration page, we'll want to show only those
comments where the
approved_p column is NULL:
"No rows selected"? That's odd. We know for a fact that we have one row in the comments table and that is
SQL> select first_names, last_name, content, user_submitted_comments.approved_p from user_submitted_comments, users where user_submitted_comments.user_id = users.user_id and user_submitted_comments.approved_p = NULL; no rows selected
approved_pcolumn is set to NULL. How to debug the query? The first thing to do is simplify by removing the JOIN:
What is happening here is that any expression involving NULL evaluates to NULL, including one that effectively looks like "NULL = NULL". The WHERE clause is looking for expressions that evaluate to true. What you need to use is the special test IS NULL:
SQL> select * from user_submitted_comments where approved_p = NULL; no rows selected
An adage among SQL programmers is that the only time you can use "= NULL" is in an UPDATE statement (to set a column's value to NULL). It never makes sense to use "= NULL" in a WHERE clause.
SQL> select * from user_submitted_comments where approved_p is NULL; COMMENT_ID USER_ID SUBMISSION_T IP_ADDRESS ---------- ---------- ------------ ---------- CONTENT APPROVED_P ------------------------------------ ------------ 1 23069 2000-05-27 126.96.36.199 This article reminds me of Hemingway
The bottom line is that as a data modeler you will have to decide which columns can be NULL and what that value will mean.
This data model locks you into some realities:
create table mailing_list ( email varchar(100) not null primary key, name varchar(100) ); create table phone_numbers ( email varchar(100) not null references mailing_list, number_type varchar(15) check (number_type in ('work','home','cell','beeper')), phone_number varchar(20) not null );
number_typecolumn may be too constrained. Suppose William H. Gates the Third wishes to record some extra phone numbers with types of "boat", "ranch", "island", and "private_jet". The
check (number_type in ('work','home','cell','beeper'))statement prevents Mr. Gates from doing this.
mailing_listis free to be NULL.
references mailing_listkeeps you from making the mistake of only updating
mailing_listand leaving orphaned rows in
phone_numbers. But if users changed their email addresses frequently, you might not want to do things this way.
But what if you have 15 different Web scripts that use this table? The ones that query it aren't a problem. If they don't ask for the new column, they won't get it and won't realize that the table has been changed (this is one of the big selling features of the RDBMS). But the scripts that update the table will all need to be changed. If you miss a script, you're potentially stuck with a table where various random rows are missing critical information.
alter table mailing_list add (registration_date date);
Oracle has a solution to your problem: triggers. A trigger is a
way of telling Oracle "any time anyone touches this table, I want you to
execute the following little fragment of code". Here's how we define
Note that the trigger only runs when someone is trying to insert a row with a NULL registration date. If for some reason you need to copy over records from another database and they have a registration date, you don't want this trigger overwriting it with the date of the copy.
create trigger mailing_list_registration_date before insert on mailing_list for each row when (new.registration_date is null) begin :new.registration_date := sysdate; end;
A second point to note about this trigger is that it runs
row. This is called a "row-level trigger" rather than a
"statement-level trigger", which runs once per transaction, and is usually
not what you want.
A third point is that we're using the magic Oracle procedure
sysdate, which will return the current time. The Oracle
date type is precise to the second even though the default
is to display only the day.
A fourth point is that, starting with Oracle 8, we could have done this
more cleanly by adding a
default sysdate instruction to the
The final point worth noting is the
:new. syntax. This
lets you refer to the new values being inserted. There is an analogous
:old. feature, which is useful for update triggers:
This time we used the
create or replace trigger mailing_list_update before update on mailing_list for each row when (new.name <> old.name) begin -- user is changing his or her name -- record the fact in an audit table insert into mailing_list_name_changes (old_name, new_name) values (:old.name, :new.name); end; / show errors
create or replacesyntax. This keeps us from having to
drop trigger mailing_list_updateif we want to change the trigger definition. We added a comment using the SQL comment shortcut "--". The syntax
old.is used in the trigger definition, limiting the conditions under which the trigger runs. Between the
end, we're in a PL/SQL block. This is Oracle's procedural language, described later, in which
new.namewould mean "the
nameelement from the record in
new". So you have to use
:newinstead. It is obscurities like this that lead to competent Oracle consultants being paid $200+ per hour.
The "/" and
show errors at the end are instructions to
Oracle's SQL*Plus program. The slash says "I'm done typing this piece
of PL/SQL, please evaluate what I've typed." The "show errors" says "if
you found anything to object to in what I just typed, please tell me".
German order reigns inside the system itself: messages are uniquely keyed with
create table bboard ( msg_id char(6) not null primary key, refers_to char(6), email varchar(200), name varchar(200), one_line varchar(700), message clob, notify char(1) default 'f' check (notify in ('t','f')), posting_time date, sort_key varchar(600) );
msg_id, refer to each other (i.e., say "I'm a response to msg X") with
refers_to, and a thread can be displayed conveniently by using the
Italian chaos is permitted in the
name columns; users could remain anonymous, masquerade as
"email@example.com" or give any name.
This seemed like a good idea when I built the system. I was concerned that it work reliably. I didn't care whether or not users put in bogus content; the admin pages made it really easy to remove such postings and, in any case, if someone had something interesting to say but needed to remain anonymous, why should the system reject their posting?
One hundred thousand postings later, as the moderator of the photo.net Q&A forum, I began to see the dimensions of my data modeling mistakes.
First, anonymous postings and fake email addresses didn't come from Microsoft employees revealing the dark truth about their evil bosses. They came from complete losers trying and failing to be funny or wishing to humiliate other readers. Some fake addresses came from people scared by the rising tide of spam email (not a serious problem back in 1995).
Second, I didn't realize how the combination of my email alert systems, fake email addresses, and Unix mailers would result in my personal mailbox filling up with messages that couldn't be delivered to "firstname.lastname@example.org" or "email@example.com".
Although the solution involved changing some Web scripts, fundamentally the fix was add a column to store the IP address from which a post was made:
Keeping these data enabled me to see that most of the anonymous posters were people who'd been using the forum for some time, typically from the same IP address. I just sent them mail and asked them to stop, explaining the problem with bounced email.
alter table bboard add (originating_ip varchar(16));
After four years of operating the photo.net community, it became apparent that we needed ways to
Note that a contributor's name and email address no longer appear in the
create table users ( user_id integer not null primary key, first_names varchar(100) not null, last_name varchar(100) not null, email varchar(100) not null unique, .. ); create table bboard ( msg_id char(6) not null primary key, refers_to char(6), topic varchar(100) not null references bboard_topics, category varchar(200), -- only used for categorized Q&A forums originating_ip varchar(16), -- stored as string, separated by periods user_id integer not null references users, one_line varchar(700), message clob, -- html_p - is the message in html or not html_p char(1) default 'f' check (html_p in ('t','f')), ... ); create table classified_ads ( classified_ad_id integer not null primary key, user_id integer not null references users, ... );
bboardtable. That doesn't mean we don't know who posted a message. In fact, this data model can't even represent an anonymous posting:
user_id integer not null references usersrequires that each posting be associated with a user ID and that there actually be a row in the
userstable with that ID.
First, let's talk about how much fun it is to move a live-on-the-Web
600,000 hit/day service from one data model to another. In this case,
note that the original
bboard data model had a single
name column. The community system has separate columns for
first and last names. A conversion script can easily split up "Joe
Smith" but what is it to do with William Henry Gates
How do we copy over anonymous postings? Remember that Oracle is not
flexible or intelligent. We said that we wanted every row in the
bboard table to reference a row in the
table. Oracle will abort any transaction that would result in a
violation of this integrity constraint. So we either have to drop all
those anonymous postings (and any non-anonymous postings that refer to
them) or we have to create a user called "Anonymous" and assign all the
anonymous postings to that person. The technical term for this kind of
solution is kludge.
A more difficult problem than anonymous postings is presented by long-time users who have difficulty typing and or keeping a job. Consider a user who has identified himself as
Once we've copied everything into this new normalized data model, notice that we can't dig ourselves into the same hole again. If a user has contributed 1000 postings, we don't have 1000 different records of that person's name and email address. If a user changes jobs, we need only update one column in one row in one table.
html_p column in the new data model is worth
mentioning. In 1995, I didn't understand the problems of user-submitted
data. Some users will submit plain text, which seems simple, but in
fact you can't just spit this out as HTML. If user A typed < or >
characters, they might get swallowed by user B's Web browser. Does this
matter? Consider that "<g>" is interpreted in various online
circles as an abbreviation for "grin" but by Netscape Navigator as an
unrecognized (and therefore ignore) HTML tag. Compare the meaning of
"We shouldn't think it unfair that Bill Gates has more wealth than the 100 million poorest Americans combined. After all, he invented the personal computer, the graphical user interface, and the Internet."with
"We shouldn't think it unfair that Bill Gates has more wealth than the 100 million poorest Americans combined. After all, he invented the personal computer, the graphical user interface, and the Internet. <g>"
It would have been easy enough for me to make sure that such characters
never got interpreted as markup. In fact, with AOLserver one can do it
with a single call to the built-in procedure
However, consider the case where a nerd posts some HTML. Other users
would then see
"For more examples of my brilliant thinking and modesty, check out <a href="http://philip.greenspun.com/">my home page</a>."I discovered that the only real solution is to ask the user whether the submission is an HTML fragment or plain text, show the user an approval page where the content may be previewed, and then remember what the user told us in an
html_pcolumn in the database.
Is this data model perfect? Permanent? Absolutely. It will last for at least... Whoa! Wait a minute. I didn't know that Dave Clark was replacing his original Internet Protocol, which the world has been running since around 1980, with IPv6 (http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2460.html). In the near future, we'll have IP addresses that are 128 bits long. That's 16 bytes, each of which takes two hex characters to represent. So we need 32 characters plus at least 7 more for periods that separate the hex digits. We might also need a couple of characters in front to say "this is a hex representation". Thus our brand new data model in fact has a crippling deficiency. How easy is it to fix? In Oracle:
You won't always get off this easy. Oracle won't let you shrink a column from a maximum of 50 characters to 16, even if no row has a value longer than 16 characters. Oracle also makes it tough to add a column that is constrained
alter table bboard modify (originating_ip varchar(50));
We have some big goals to consider. We want the data in the database to
Note that we use a generated integer
create table static_pages ( page_id integer not null primary key, url_stub varchar(400) not null unique, original_author integer references users(user_id), page_title varchar(4000), page_body clob, obsolete_p char(1) default 'f' check (obsolete_p in ('t','f')), members_only_p char(1) default 'f' check (members_only_p in ('t','f')), price number, copyright_info varchar(4000), accept_comments_p char(1) default 't' check (accept_comments_p in ('t','f')), accept_links_p char(1) default 't' check (accept_links_p in ('t','f')), last_updated date, -- used to prevent minor changes from looking like new content publish_date date ); create table static_page_authors ( page_id integer not null references static_pages, user_id integer not null references users, notify_p char(1) default 't' check (notify_p in ('t','f')), unique(page_id,user_id) );
page_idkey for this table. We could key the table by the
url_stub(filename), but that would make it very difficult to reorganize files in the Unix file system (something that should actually happen very seldom on a Web server; it breaks links from foreign sites).
How to generate these unique integer keys when you have to insert a new
static_pages? You could
Then we can get new page IDs by using
create sequence page_id_sequence start with 1;
page_id_sequence.nextvalin INSERT statements (see the Transactions chapter for a fuller discussion of sequences).
Despite this plethora of data types, Oracle has some glaring holes that torture developers. For example, there is no Boolean data type. A developer who needs an
Character Data char(n) A fixed-length character string, e.g.,
char(200)will take up 200 bytes regardless of how long the string actually is. This works well when the data truly are of fixed size, e.g., when you are recording a user's sex as "m" or "f". This works badly when the data are of variable length. Not only does it waste space on the disk and in the memory cache, but it makes comparisons fail. For example, suppose you insert "rating" into a
comment_typecolumn of type
char(30)and then your Tcl program queries the database. Oracle sends this column value back to procedural language clients padded with enough spaces to make up 30 total characters. Thus if you have a comparison within Tcl of whether
$comment_type == "rating", the comparison will fail because
$comment_typeis actually "rating" followed by 24 spaces.
The maximum length char in Oracle8 is 2000 bytes.
varchar(n) A variable-length character string, up to 4000 bytes long in Oracle8. These are stored in such a way as to minimize disk space usage, i.e., if you only put one character into a column of type
varchar(4000), Oracle only consumes two bytes on disk. The reason that you don't just make all the columns
varchar(4000)is that the Oracle indexing system is limited to indexing keys of about 700 bytes.
clob A variable-length character string, up to 4 gigabytes long in Oracle8. The CLOB data type is useful for accepting user input from such applications as discussion forums. Sadly, Oracle8 has tremendous limitations on how CLOB data may be inserted, modified, and queried. Use
varchar(4000)if you can and prepare to suffer if you can't.
In a spectacular demonstration of what happens when companies don't follow the lessons of The Mythical Man Month, the regular string functions don't work on CLOBs. You need to call identically named functions in the DBMS_LOB package. These functions take the same arguments but in different orders. You'll never be able to write a working line of code without first reading the DBMS_LOB section of the Oracle8 Server Application Developer's Guide.
nchar, nvarchar, nclob The n prefix stands for "national character set". These work like char, varchar, and clob but for multi-byte characters (e.g., Unicode; see http://www.unicode.org). Numeric Data number Oracle actually only has one internal data type that is used for storing numbers. It can handle 38 digits of precision and exponents from -130 to +126. If you want to get fancy, you can specify precision and scale limits. For example,
number(3,0)says "round everything to an integer [scale 0] and accept numbers than range from -999 to +999". If you're American and commercially minded,
number(9,2)will probably work well for storing prices in dollars and cents (unless you're selling stuff to Bill Gates, in which case the billion dollar limit imposed by the precision of 9 might prove constraining). If you are Bill Gates, you might not want to get distracted by insignificant numbers: Tell Oracle to round everything to the nearest million with
integer In terms of storage consumed and behavior, this is not any different from
number(38)but I think it reads better and it is more in line with ANSI SQL (which would be a standard if anyone actually implemented it).
Dates and Date/Time Intervals (Version 9i and newer) timestamp A point in time, recorded with sub-second precision. When creating a column you specify the number of digits of precision beyond one second from 0 (single second precision) to 9 (nanosecond precision). Oracle's calendar can handle dates between between January 1, 4712 BC and December 31, 9999 AD. You can put in values with the
to_timestampfunction and query them out using the
to_charfunction. Oracle offers several variants of this datatype for coping with data aggregated across multiple timezones.
interval year to month An amount of time, expressed in years and months. interval day to second An amount of time, expressed in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. Can be precise down to the nanosecond if desired. Dates and Date/Time Intervals (Versions 8i and earlier) date Obsolete as of version 9i. A point in time, recorded with one-second precision, between January 1, 4712 BC and December 31, 4712 AD. You can put in values with the
to_datefunction and query them out using the
to_charfunction. If you don't use these functions, you're limited to specifying the date with the default system format mask, usually 'DD-MON-YY'. This is a good recipe for a Year 2000 bug since January 23, 2000 would be '23-JAN-00'. On better-maintained systems, this is often the ANSI default: 'YYYY-MM-DD', e.g., '2000-01-23' for January 23, 2000.
number Hey, isn't this a typo? What's
numberdoing in the date section? It is here because this is how Oracle versions prior to 9i represented date-time intervals, though their docs never say this explicitly. If you add numbers to dates, you get new dates. For example, tomorrow at exactly this time is
sysdate+1. To query for stuff submitted in the last hour, you limit to
submitted_date > sysdate - 1/24.
Binary Data blob BLOB stands for "Binary Large OBject". It doesn't really have to be all that large, though Oracle will let you store up to 4 GB. The BLOB data type was set up to permit the storage of images, sound recordings, and other inherently binary data. In practice, it also gets used by fraudulent application software vendors. They spend a few years kludging together some nasty format of their own. Their MBA executive customers demand that the whole thing be RDBMS-based. The software vendor learns enough about Oracle to "stuff everything into a BLOB". Then all the marketing and sales folks are happy because the application is now running from Oracle instead of from the file system. Sadly, the programmers and users don't get much because you can't use SQL very effectively to query or update what's inside a BLOB. bfile A binary file, stored by the operating system (typically Unix) and kept track of by Oracle. These would be useful when you need to get to information both from SQL (which is kept purposefully ignorant about what goes on in the wider world) and from an application that can only read from standard files (e.g., a typical Web server). The bfile data type is pretty new but to my mind it is already obsolete: Oracle 8.1 (8i) lets external applications view content in the database as though it were a file on a Windows NT server. So why not keep everything as a BLOB and enable Oracle's Internet File System?
approved_pcolumn is forced to use
char(1) check(this_column in ('t','f'))and then, instead of the clean query
where approved_pis forced into
where approved_p = 't'.
Oracle8 includes a limited ability to create your own data types. Covering these is beyond the scope of this book. See Oracle8 Server Concepts, User-Defined Datatypes.
Even in a simple example such as the one above, there are few items worth noting. First, I like to define the key column(s) at the very top. Second, the
CREATE TABLE your_table_name ( the_key_column key_data_type PRIMARY KEY, a_regular_column a_data_type, an_important_column a_data_type NOT NULL, ... up to 996 intervening columns in Oracle8 ... the_last_column a_data_type );
primary keyconstraint has some powerful effects. It forces
the_key_columnto be non-null. It causes the creation of an index on
the_key_column, which will slow down updates to
your_table_namebut improve the speed of access when someone queries for a row with a particular value of
the_key_column. Oracle checks this index when inserting any new row and aborts the transaction if there is already a row with the same value for
the_key_column. Third, note that there is no comma following the definition of the last row. If you are careless and leave the comma in, Oracle will give you a very confusing error message.
If you didn't get it right the first time, you'll probably want to
alter table your_table_name add (new_column_name a_data_type any_constraints);
In Oracle 8i you can drop a column:
alter table your_table_name modify (existing_column_name new_data_type new_constraints);
alter table your_table_name drop column existing_column_name;
If you're still in the prototype stage, you'll probably find it easier to simply
and recreate it. At any time, you can see what you've got defined in the database by querying Oracle's Data Dictionary:
drop table your_table_name;
after which you will typically type
SQL> select table_name from user_tables order by table_name; TABLE_NAME ------------------------------ ADVS ADV_CATEGORIES ADV_GROUPS ADV_GROUP_MAP ADV_LOG ADV_USER_MAP AD_AUTHORIZED_MAINTAINERS AD_CATEGORIES AD_DOMAINS AD_INTEGRITY_CHECKS BBOARD ... STATIC_CATEGORIES STATIC_PAGES STATIC_PAGE_AUTHORS USERS ...
describe table_name_of_interestin SQL*Plus:
Note that Oracle displays its internal data types rather than the ones you've given, e.g.,
SQL> describe users; Name Null? Type ------------------------------- -------- ---- USER_ID NOT NULL NUMBER(38) FIRST_NAMES NOT NULL VARCHAR2(100) LAST_NAME NOT NULL VARCHAR2(100) PRIV_NAME NUMBER(38) EMAIL NOT NULL VARCHAR2(100) PRIV_EMAIL NUMBER(38) EMAIL_BOUNCING_P CHAR(1) PASSWORD NOT NULL VARCHAR2(30) URL VARCHAR2(200) ON_VACATION_UNTIL DATE LAST_VISIT DATE SECOND_TO_LAST_VISIT DATE REGISTRATION_DATE DATE REGISTRATION_IP VARCHAR2(50) ADMINISTRATOR_P CHAR(1) DELETED_P CHAR(1) BANNED_P CHAR(1) BANNING_USER NUMBER(38) BANNING_NOTE VARCHAR2(4000)
varchar2instead of the specified
not null; requires a value for this column
unique; two rows can't have the same value in this column (side effect in Oracle: creates an index)
primary key; same as
uniqueexcept that no row can have a null value for this column and other tables can refer to this column
check; limit the range of values for column, e.g.,
rating integer check(rating > 0 and rating <= 10)
references; this column can only contain values present in another table's primary key column, e.g.,
user_id not null references usersin the
bboardtable forces the
user_idcolumn to only point to valid users. An interesting twist is that you don't have to give a data type for
user_id; Oracle assigns this column to whatever data type the foreign key has (in this case
Oracle will let us keep rows that have the same
create table static_page_authors ( page_id integer not null references static_pages, user_id integer not null references users, notify_p char(1) default 't' check (notify_p in ('t','f')), unique(page_id,user_id) );
page_idand rows that have the same
user_idbut not rows that have the same value in both columns (which would not make sense; a person can't be the author of a document more than once). Suppose that you run a university distinguished lecture series. You want speakers who are professors at other universities or at least PhDs. On the other hand, if someone controls enough money, be it his own or his company's, he's in. Oracle stands ready:
As desired, Oracle prevented us from inserting some random average loser into the
create table distinguished_lecturers ( lecturer_id integer primary key, name_and_title varchar(100), personal_wealth number, corporate_wealth number, check (instr(upper(name_and_title),'PHD') <> 0 or instr(upper(name_and_title),'PROFESSOR') <> 0 or (personal_wealth + corporate_wealth) > 1000000000) ); insert into distinguished_lecturers values (1,'Professor Ellen Egghead',-10000,200000); 1 row created. insert into distinguished_lecturers values (2,'Bill Gates, innovator',75000000000,18000000000); 1 row created. insert into distinguished_lecturers values (3,'Joe Average',20000,0); ORA-02290: check constraint (PHOTONET.SYS_C001819) violated
distinguished_lecturerstable, but the error message was confusing in that it refers to a constraint given the name of "SYS_C001819" and owned by the PHOTONET user. We can give our constraint a name at definition time:
Now the error message is easier to understand by application programmers.
create table distinguished_lecturers ( lecturer_id integer primary key, name_and_title varchar(100), personal_wealth number, corporate_wealth number, constraint ensure_truly_distinguished check (instr(upper(name_and_title),'PHD') <> 0 or instr(upper(name_and_title),'PROFESSOR') <> 0 or (personal_wealth + corporate_wealth) > 1000000000) ); insert into distinguished_lecturers values (3,'Joe Average',20000,0); ORA-02290: check constraint (PHOTONET.ENSURE_TRULY_DISTINGUISHED) violated
category_keywordcolumn is a unique shorthand way of referring to a category in a URL. However, this column may be NULL because it is not the primary key to the table. The shorthand method of referring to the category is optional.
We can't add a UNIQUE constraint to the
create table au_categories ( category_id integer primary key, -- shorthand for referring to this category, -- e.g. "bridges", for use in URLs category_keyword varchar(30), -- human-readable name of this category, -- e.g. "All types of bridges" category_name varchar(128) not null );
category_keywordcolumn. That would allow the table to only have one row where
category_keywordwas NULL. So we add a trigger that can execute an arbitrary PL/SQL expression and raise an error to prevent an INSERT if necessary:
This trigger queries the table to find out if there are any matching keywords already inserted. If there are, it calls the built-in Oracle procedure
create or replace trigger au_category_unique_tr before insert on au_categories for each row declare existing_count integer; begin select count(*) into existing_count from au_categories where category_keyword = :new.category_keyword; if existing_count > 0 then raise_application_error(-20010, 'Category keywords must be unique if used'); end if; end;
raise_application_errorto abort the transaction.